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The Complete Racing Rules of Sailing for 2013 are included after two brief summaries of the Sailing Right of Way Rules. Scan down for the Complete Text of the Yacht Racing Rules 2013, ISF, IYRU.


 Summary of “Sailboat Racing Rules in a Nutshell” by Bates McKee. Nov 19, 2011. Wooden Boat Center, Seattle WA.

 T-37 RACING RULES: Brief Summary


1. Fair Sailing “Recognized principles of Sportsmanship & Fair Play”

2. Avoid Contact “If possible”

3. Right of Way Boat “Must give other boat a chance to Keep Clear”



1. Port Tack Boat Must Keep Clear of Starboard Tack Boat. Your boat is on Starboard tack if the wind is coming across the starboard (right) side of your boat. Your boat is on Starboard tack any time the mainsail is out on the Port (left) side of your boat.

2. Windward Boat Must Keep Clear of Leeward Boat. If two boats are on the same tack (both on Starboard tack or both on Port tack), the windward boat is the boat that is on the upwind side of the Leeward boat. The upwind side of a boat is always the opposite side from the side the mainsail is on, so a boat running directly downwind still has an upwind and a downwind side.

3. Boat Astern Must Keep Clear of Boat Ahead.

4. Outside Boat Must Keep Clear of Inside Boat at a mark when there is an overlap between the two boats. “Buoy Room”

- Overlap is determined 4 boat lengths from the mark. If the overlap does not exist when the bow of the first boat enters the 4 boat length zone, then no overlap exists for the purpose of claiming buoy room.
- Does not apply at start. Does not apply to port-starboard situations at windward mark.

5. At Obstruction A boat Must Give Room to another boat to pass the obstruction or tack.



1. When Tacking from head to wind until sails are filled and sailing close-hauled.

2. When Returning To Start after being “Over Early".

3. When Doing a Penalty Turn after fouling a boat.


Special Provisions in T37 Racing

1. Only one 360 degree circle is required for penalty turns.

2. There is no penalty for touching a racing mark while rounding the mark.



The Rules in 12 inches - Here is another version of the same racing rules, slightly more in depth, but still only a few minutes to read!


PORT-STARBOARD. Port-tack boats must keep clear of starboard-tack boats. (Rule 10) Note: you are “keeping clear” of another boat when she doesn’t have to avoid you.

WINDWARD-LEEWARD. When boats are overlapped on the same tack, the windward boat must keep clear. (Rule 11)

ON SAME TACK, ASTERN-AHEAD. When boats are on the same tack and not overlapped, the boat clear astern must keep clear. (Rule 12) Note: One boat is “clear astern” if she’s entirely behind a line through the other boat’s aft-most point, perpendicular to the other boat. The other boat is “clear ahead.” Two boats are “overlapped” if neither is clear ahead of the other.

TACKING TOO CLOSE. Before you tack, make sure your tack will keep you clear of all other boats (Rule 13)


If the other boat must keep clear, you have “right of way”. Even if you have right of way, there are limitations on what you can do:

AVOID CONTACT. You must avoid contact with other boats, but a right-of-way boat will not be penalized under this rule unless the contact causes damage. (Rule 14)

ACQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY. When you do something to become the right-of-way boat, you must give the other boat a chance to get away from you (Rule 15)
CHANGING COURSE. When you change course, you must give the other boat a chance to keep clear.

ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE. If you are overlapped to leeward of a boat on the same tack, and if just before the overlap began you were clear astern of her, you cannot sail above your proper course (i.e., the course that will take you to the next mark the fastest) while you remain overlapped (Rule 17.1)


There is a set of special rules for boats that are about to pass a mark or obstruction. However, these special rules don’t apply between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward. (Rule 18.1)

Except at the starting mark, you must give boats overlapped inside you, room to pass a mark or obstruction, and boats clear astern must keep clear of you.

There’s a four boat length zone around marks and obstructions, and a boat’s rights and obligations with respect to another boat are “frozen” when the first of them enters that zone. If you are clear astern of another boat when she enters the zone, you must keep clear of her until both boats are past the mark or obstruction, even if you later become overlapped insider her. (Rule 18.2)

TACKING NEAR A MARK. Don’t tack within the four-boat length zone at a windward mark if you will cause a boat that is fetching the mark to sail above close-hauled to avoid you, or if you will prevent her from passing the mark. (Rule 18.3)

ROOM TO TACK AT AN OBSTRUCTION. When boats are on the same tack on a beat and come to an obstruction, the leeward boat gets to decide which way they are going to pass it. If the leeward boat hails for room to tack, the other boat must give it to her; but the leeward boat must give the other boat time to respond before she tacks. (Rule 19)

Before your Preparatory Signal, and after you finish, don’t interfere with boats that are about to start or are racing. (Rule 22.1)

If you break a rule while racing, get away from other boats and do one 360-degree turn; No penalty for touching a mark. Marks must be rounded in the prescribed direction. (Rules 20 and 44)

If you start too soon, keep clear of others until you get behind the line again. (Rules 20 and 29)

Adapted from US Sailing Association web site.

That covers pretty much everything you need to know! But, if you want still more information, here is the complete text of the Yacht Racing Rule book:



Here is The Complete Version of the Racing Rules of Sailing:

Note: the only provision in Section E for Radio Control Model Racing that significantly alters the standard rules concerns the zone around a mark where an overlap between boats is established or not established for the purposes of claiming buoy room at the mark. In RC sailing, the first boat enters the zone when its bow is four boat lengths from the mark rather than three boat lengths for full size boats. If an overlap between two or more boats exists at this point when the first boat's bow enters the zone, then the inside boat(s) can claim room to round the buoy. If an overlap does not exist at this point then the inside boat(s) must keep clear. The rule is the same for RC boats and full sized boats except for the change from 3 boat lengths for full sized boats to 4 boat lengths for RC boats.


THE RACING RULES OF SAILING for 2013–2016 International Sailing Federation

DEFINITIONS  A term used as stated below is shown in italic type or, in preambles, in bold italic type.

Abandon A race that a race committee or protest committee abandons is void but may be resailed.

Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap
One boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment in normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is clear ahead.
They overlap when neither is clear astern. However, they also overlap when a boat between them overlaps both.
These terms always apply to boats on the same tack. They do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless rule 18 applies or both boats are sailing more than ninety degrees from the true wind.

Fetching A boat is fetching a mark when she is in a position to pass to windward of it and leave it on the required side without changing tack.

Finish A boat finishes when any part of her hull, or crew or equipment in normal position, crosses the finishing line from the course side. However, she has not finished if after crossing the finishing line she
(a) takes a penalty under rule 44.2,
(b) corrects an error under rule 28.2 made at the line, or
(c) continues to sail the course.

Interested Party A person who may gain or lose as a result of a protest committee’s decision, or who has a close personal interest in the decision.

Keep Clear A boat keeps clear of a right-of-way boat
(a) if the right-of-way boat can sail her course with no need to take avoiding action and,
(b) when the boats are overlapped, if the right-of-way boat can also change course in both directions without immediately making contact.

Leeward and Windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head to wind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the lee or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats on the same tack overlap, the one on the leeward side of the other is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.

Mark An object the sailing instructions require a boat to leave on a specified side, and a race committee boat surrounded by navigable water from which the starting or finishing line extends. An anchor line or an object attached accidentally to a mark is not part of it.

Mark-Room  Room for a boat to leave a mark on the required side. Also,
(a) room to sail to the mark when her proper course is to sail close to it, and
(b) room to round the mark as necessary to sail the course.
However, mark-room for a boat does not include room to tack unless she is overlapped inside and to windward of the boat required to give mark-room and she would be fetching the mark after her tack.

Obstruction An object that a boat could not pass without changing course substantially, if she were sailing directly towards it and one of her hull lengths from it. An object that can be safely passed on only one side and an area so designated by the sailing instructions are also obstructions.
However, a boat racing is not an obstruction to other boats unless they are required to keep clear of her or, if rule 23 applies, avoid her. A vessel under way, including a boat racing, is never a continuing obstruction.

Overlap See Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap.

Party A party to a hearing is
(a) for a protest hearing: a protestor, a protestee;
(b) for a request for redress: a boat requesting redress or for which redress is requested, a R/C acting under rule 60.2(b);
(c) for a request for redress under rule 62.1(a): the body alleged to have made an improper action or omission;
(d) a boat or a competitor that may be penalized under rule 69.2.
However, the protest committee is never a party.

Postpone A postponed race is delayed before its scheduled start but may be started or abandoned later.

Proper Course A course a boat would sail to finish as soon as possible in the absence of the other boats referred to in the rule using the term. A boat has no proper course before her starting signal.

Protest An allegation made under rule 61.2 by a boat, a race committee or a protest committee that a boat has broken a rule.

Racing A boat is racing from her preparatory signal until she finishes and clears the finishing line and marks or retires, or until the race committee signals a general recall, postponement or abandonment.

Room The space a boat needs in the existing conditions, including space to comply with her obligations under the rules of Part 2 and rule 31, while maneuvering promptly in a seamanlike way.

Rule (a) The rules in this book, including the Definitions, Race Signals, Introduction, preambles and the rules of relevant appendices, but not titles; (b) [select ISAF Regulations]; (c) the prescriptions of the national authority, unless they are changed by the sailing instructions…; (d) the class rules (rules of handicap or rating system are ‘class rules’); (e) the notice of race; (f) the sailing instructions; and (g) any other documents that govern the event.

Start A boat starts when, having been entirely on the pre-start side of the starting line at or after her starting signal, and having complied with rule 30.1…, any part of her hull, crew or equipment crosses the starting line in the direction of the first mark.

Tack, Starboard or Port A boat is on the tack, starboard or port, corresponding to her windward side.

Windward See Leeward and Windward.

Zone The area around a mark within a distance of three hull lengths of the boat nearer to it. A boat is in the zone when any part of her hull is in the zone.



Competitors in the sport of sailing are governed by a body of rules that they are expected to follow and enforce. A fundamen-tal principle of sportsmanship is that when competitors break a rule they will promptly take a penalty, which may be to retire.


Participants are encouraged to minimize any adverse environmental impact of the sport of sailing.




    1. Helping Those in Danger   A boat or competitor shall give all possible help to any person or vessel in danger.
    2. Life-Saving Equipment and Personal Flotation Devices [omitted on this sheet]
  1. FAIR SAILING A boat and her owner shall compete in compliance with recognized principles of sportsmanship and fair play. A boat may be penalized under this rule only if it is clearly established that these principles have been violated.       A disqualification under this rule shall not be excluded from the boat’s series score.



By participating in a race conducted under these racing rules, each competitor and boat owner agrees
(a) to be governed by the rules;
(b) to accept the penalties imposed and other action taken under the rules, subject to the appeal and review procedures provided in them, as the final determination of any matter arising under the rules; and
(c) with respect to any such determination, not to resort to any court of law or tribunal.

The responsibility for a boat’s decision to participate in a race or to continue racing is hers alone.

5 ANTI-DOPING  [omitted from this sheet]


The rules of Part 2 apply between boats that are sailing in or near the racing area and intend to race, are racing, or have been racing. However, a boat not racing shall not be penalized … except rule 24.1. When a boat sailing under these rules meets a vessel that is not, she shall comply with …IRPCAS or government right-of-way rules.

RIGHT OF WAY A boat has right of way over another boat when the other boat is required to keep clear of her. However, some rules in Sections B, C and D limit the actions of a right-of-way boat.

When boats are on opposite tacks, a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard-tack boat.

When boats are on the same tack and overlapped, a windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.

When boats are on the same tack and not overlapped, a boat clear astern shall keep clear of a boat clear ahead.

After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side or the one astern shall keep clear.


A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible.
However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room or mark-room
(a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room or mark-room, and
(b) shall be exonerated if she breaks this rule and the contact does not cause damage or injury.

When a boat acquires right of way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear, unless she acquires right of way because of the other boat’s actions.

16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear.
16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal a port-tack boat is keeping clear by sailing to pass astern of a starboard-tack boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear.

If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack, she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain on the same tack and overlapped within that distance, unless in doing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat.
This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear.

Section C rules do not apply at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are
approaching them to start until they have passed them.


18.1 When Rule 18 Applies
Rule 18 applies between boats when they are required to leave a mark on the same side and at least one of them is in the zone. However, it does not apply
(a) between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward,
(b) between boats on opposite tacks when the proper course at the mark for one but not both of them is to tack,
(c) between a boat approaching a mark and one leaving it, or
(d) if the mark is a continuing obstruction, in which case rule 19 applies.

18.2 Giving Mark-Room
(a) When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat mark-room, unless rule 18.2(b) applies.
(b) If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches the zone, the outside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reaches the zone, the boat clear astern at that moment shall thereafter give her mark-room.
(c) When a boat is required to give mark-room by rule 18.2(b),
(1) she shall continue to do so even if later an overlap is broken or a new overlap begins;
(2) if she becomes overlapped inside the boat entitled to mark-room, she shall also give that boat room to sail her proper course while they remain overlapped.
However, if the boat entitled to mark-room passes head to wind or leaves the zone, rule 18.2(b) ceases to apply.
(d) If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not.
(e) If a boat obtained an inside overlap from clear astern or by tacking to windward of the other boat and, from the time the
overlap began, the outside boat has been unable to give mark-room, she is not required to give it.

18.3 Tacking in the Zone
If a boat in the zone passes head to wind and is then on the same tack as a boat that is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not thereafter apply between them. The boat that changed tack
(a) shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid contact or prevent the other boat from passing the mark
on the required side, and
(b) shall give mark-room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her.

18.4 Gybing
When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark than needed to sail that course. Rule 18.4 does not apply at a gate mark.


19.1 When Rule 19 Applies
Rule 19 applies between boats at an obstruction except when it is also a mark the boats are required to leave on the same side. However, at a continuing obstruction, rule 19 always applies and rule 18 does not.

19.2 Giving Room at an Obstruction
(a) A right-of-way boat may choose to pass an obstruction on either side.
(b) When boats are overlapped, the outside boat shall give the inside boat room between her and the obstruction, unless she
has been unable to do so from the time the overlap began.
(c) While boats are passing a continuing obstruction, if a boat that was clear astern and required to keep clear becomes overlapped between the other boat and the obstruction and, at the moment the overlap begins, there is not room for her to
pass between them, she is not entitled to room under rule 19.2(b). While the boats remain overlapped, she shall keep
clear and rules 10 and 11 do not apply.


20.1 Hailing
When approaching an obstruction, a boat may hail for room to tack and avoid a boat on the same tack.
However, she shall not hail if
(a) she can avoid the obstruction safely without making a substantial course change,
(b) she is sailing below close-hauled, or
(c) the obstruction is a mark and a boat that is fetching it would be required to respond and change course.

20.2 Responding
(a) After a boat hails, she shall give the hailed boat time to respond.
(b) The hailed boat shall respond even if the hail breaks rule 20.1.
(c) The hailed boat shall respond either by tacking as soon as possible, or by immediately replying ‘You tack’ and then
giving the hailing boat room to tack and avoid her.
(d) When the hailed boat responds, the hailing boat shall tack as soon as possible.
(e) From the time a boat hails until she has tacked and avoided the hailed boat, rule 18.2 does not apply between them.

20.3 Passing On a Hail to an Additional Boat
When a boat has been hailed for room to tack and she intends to respond by tacking, she may hail another boat on the same tack for room to tack and avoid her. She may hail even if her hail does not meet the conditions of rule 20.1. Rule 20.2 applies between her and the boat she hails.

When a boat is sailing within the room or mark-room to which she is entitled under a rule of Section C, she shall be exonerated if, in an incident with a boat required to give her that room or mark-room,
(a) she breaks a rule of Section A, rule 15 or rule 16, or
(b) she is compelled to break rule 31.


When rule 22 or 23 applies between two boats, Section A rules do not.


22.1 A boat sailing towards the pre-start side of the starting line or one of its extensions after her starting signal to start or to comply with rule 30.1 shall keep clear of a boat not doing so until she is completely on the pre-start side.

22.2 A boat taking a penalty shall keep clear of one that is not.

22.3 A boat moving astern through the water by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.

If possible, a boat shall avoid a boat that is capsized or has not regained control after capsizing, is anchored or aground, or is trying to help a person or vessel in danger. A boat is capsized when her masthead is in the water.


24.1 If reasonably possible, a boat not racing shall not interfere with a boat that is racing.
24.2 Except when sailing her proper course, a boat shall not interfere with a boat taking a penalty or sailing on another leg.





25.1 The notice of race and sailing instructions shall be made available to each boat before a race begins.
25.2 The meanings of the visual and sound signals stated in Race Signals shall not be changed except under rule 86.1(b). The meanings of any other signals that may be used shall be stated in the sailing instructions.
25.3 A race committee may display a visual signal by using either a flag or other object of a similar appearance.

Races shall be started by using the following signals. Times shall be taken from the visual signals; the absence of a sound signal shall be disregarded.
Minutes before start            Visual signal                                         Sound signal        Means

5*                                            Class flag                                              One                        Warning signal
4                                              P, I, Z, Z with I, or black flag               One                        Preparatory signal
1                                              Preparatory flag removed                  One long               One minute
0                                              Class flag removed                             One                        Starting signal
*or as stated in the sailing instructions

The warning signal for each succeeding class shall be made with or after the starting signal of the preceding class.



28.1 A boat shall start, sail the course described in the sailing instructions and finish. While doing so, she may leave on either side a mark that does not begin, bound or end the leg she is sailing. After finishing she need not cross the finishing line completely.

28.2 A string representing a boat’s track from the time she begins to approach the starting line from its pre-start side to start until she finishes shall, when drawn taut,
(a) pass each mark on the required side and in the correct order,
(b) touch each rounding mark, and
(c) pass between the marks of a gate from the direction of the previous mark.
She may correct any errors to comply with this rule, provided she has not finished.

29 RECALLS [omitted from this sheet]


30.1 I Flag Rule
If flag I has been displayed, and any part of a boat’s hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line or one of its extensions during the last minute before her starting signal, she shall thereafter sail from the course side across an extension to the prestart side before starting.

30.2 Z Flag Rule
[If a boat is] in the triangle formed by the ends of the starting line and the first mark during the last minute before her starting signal... and is identified, she shall receive, without a hearing, a 20% Scoring Penalty… even if the race is restarted or resailed, but not if it is postponed or abandoned before the starting signal. If she is similarly identified during a subsequent attempt to start the same race, she shall receive an additional 20% Scoring Penalty.

30.3 Black Flag Rule
[omissions] If a boat breaks this rule and is identified, she shall be disqualified without a hearing, even if the race is restarted or resailed [incl. Gen Recall or Abandoned after starting signal], but not if it is postponed or abandoned before the starting signal. [details omitted]

31 TOUCHING A MARK   While racing, a boat shall not touch a starting mark before starting, a mark that begins, bounds or ends the leg of the course on which she is sailing, or a finishing mark after finishing.

[various omissions]


A boat shall not receive help from any outside source, except
(a) help for a crew member who is ill, injured or in danger;
(b) after a collision, help from the crew of the other vessel to get clear;
(c) help in the form of information freely available to all boats;
(d) unsolicited information from a disinterested source, which may be another boat in the same race.
However, a boat that gains a significant advantage in the race from help received under rule 41(a) may be protested and penalized; any penalty may be less than disqualification.


42.1 Basic Rule
Except when permitted in rule 42.3 or 45, a boat shall compete by using only the wind and water to increase, maintain or decrease her speed. Her crew may adjust the trim of sails and hull, and perform other acts of seamanship, but shall not otherwise move their bodies to propel the boat.

42.2 Prohibited Actions
Without limiting the application of rule 42.1, these actions are prohibited:
(a) pumping: repeated fanning of any sail either by pulling in & releasing the sail or by vertical or athwartship body movement;
(b) rocking: repeated rolling of the boat, induced by
(1) body movement,
(2) repeated adjustment of the sails or centreboard, or
(3) steering;
(c) ooching: sudden forward body movement, stopped abruptly;
(d) sculling: repeated movement of helm that is either forceful or that propels the boat forward or prevents …moving astern;
(e) repeated tacks or gybes unrelated to changes in the wind or to tactical considerations.

42.3 Exceptions
(a) A boat may be rolled to facilitate steering.
(b) A boat’s crew may move their bodies to exaggerate the rolling that facilitates steering the boat through a tack or a gybe,
provided that, just after the tack or gybe is completed, the boat’s speed is not greater than it would have been in the
absence of the tack or gybe.
(c) Except on a beat to windward, when surfing (… down the front of a wave) or planing is possible, the boat’s crew may pull in any sail in order to initiate surfing or planing, but each sail may be pulled in only once for each wave or gust of wind.
(d) When a boat is above close-hauled and either stationary or moving slowly, she may scull to turn to a closehauled course.
(e) If a batten is inverted, the boat’s crew may pump the sail until the batten is no longer inverted. This action is not permitted if
it clearly propels the boat.
(f) A boat may reduce speed by repeatedly moving her helm.
(g) Any means of propulsion may be used to help a person or another vessel in danger.
(h) To get clear after grounding or colliding with a vessel or object, a boat may use force applied by her crew or the crew of
the other vessel and any equipment … …the use of an engine may be permitted by rule 42.3(i).
(i) Sailing instructions may, in stated circumstances, permit propulsion using an engine or any other method, provided the
boat does not gain a significant advantage in the race.
Note: Interpretations of rule 42 are available at the ISAF website or by mail upon request.



55 TRASH DISPOSAL   A competitor shall not intentionally put trash in the water.


Radio sailing races shall be sailed under The Racing Rules of Sailing as changed by this appendix.
E1.1 Definitions
Add to the definition Interested Party: ‘but not a competitor when acting as an observer’.
In the definition Zone the distance is changed to four hull lengths.
Add new definition:
Disabled A boat is disabled while she is unable to continue in the heat.
E1.2 Terminology
The Terminology paragraph of the Introduction is changed so that:
(a) ‘Boat’ means a sailboat controlled by radio signals and having no crew. However, in the rules of Part 1 and Part 5, rule E6 and the definitions Party and Protest, ‘boat’ includes the
competitor controlling her.
(b) ‘Competitor’ means the person that controls a boat using radio signals.
(c) In the racing rules, but not in its appendices, replace the noun ‘race’ with ‘heat’. In
Appendix E a race consists of one or more heats and is completed when the last heat in the race is completed.
E1.3 Rules of Parts 1, 2 and 7
(a) Rule 1.2 is deleted.
(b) In rule 20, hails and replies shall be made by the competitor controlling the boat.
(c) Rule 23 is changed to: ‘If possible, a boat shall avoid a boat that is disabled.’
(d) Rule 90.2(c) is changed to:
Changes to the sailing instructions may be communicated orally to all affected competitors before the warning signal of the relevant race or heat. When appropriate, changes shall be
confirmed in writing.
Rule E2 applies only while boats are racing.
E2.1 Hailing Requirements
(a) A hail shall be made so that the competitors to whom the hail is directed might reasonably be expected to hear it.
(b) The individual digits of a boat’s sail number shall be hailed; for example ‘one five’, not ‘fifteen’.
E2.2 Giving Advice
A competitor shall not give tactical or strategic advice to a competitor controlling a boat that is racing.
E2.3 Boat Out of Radio Control
A competitor who loses radio control of his boat shall promptly hail and repeat ‘(The boat’s sail number) out of control’ and the boat shall retire.
E2.4 Transmitter Aerials
If a transmitter aerial is longer than 200mm when extended, the extremity shall be adequately protected.
E2.5 Radio Interference
Transmission of radio signals that cause interference with the control of other boats is prohibited. A competitor that has broken this rule shall not race again until permitted to do so by the race committee.
E3.1 Control Area
The sailing instructions may specify a control area; if not specified, it shall be unrestricted. Competitors shall be in this area when controlling boats that are racing, except briefly to handle and then release or re-launch the boat.
E3.2 Launching Area
The sailing instructions may specify a launching area and its use; if not specified it shall be unrestricted.
E3.3 Course Board
The sailing instructions may require the course to be displayed on a board and, if so, the board shall be located in or adjacent to the control area.
E3.4 Starting and Finishing
(a) Rule 26 is changed to:
Heats shall be started using warning, preparatory and starting signals at one-minute intervals. During the minute before the starting signal, additional sound or oral signals shall be made at
ten-second intervals, and during the final ten seconds at one second intervals. Each signal shall be timed from the beginning of its sound.
(b) The starting and finishing lines shall be between the course sides of the starting and finishing marks.
E3.5 Individual Recall
Rule 29.1 is changed to:
When at a boat’s starting signal any part of the boat is on the course side of the starting line, or when she must comply with rule 30.1, the race committee shall promptly hail ‘Recall (sail numbers)’ and repeat the hail as appropriate.
E3.6 General Recall
Rule 29.2 is changed to:
When at the starting signal the race committee is unable to identify boats that are on the course side of the starting line or to which rule 30 applies, or there has been an error in the starting procedure, the race committee may hail and repeat as appropriate ‘General recall’
and make two loud sounds. The preparatory signal for a new start will normally be made shortly thereafter.
E3.7 Black Flag Rule
When the race committee informs a boat that she has broken rule 30.3, the boat shall immediately leave the course area.
E3.8 Other Changes to the Rules of Part 3
(a) Rules 30.2 and 33 are deleted.
(b) All race committee signals shall be made orally or by other sounds. No visual signals are required unless specified in the sailing instructions.
(c) Courses shall not be shortened.
(d) Rule 32.1(b) is changed to: ‘because of foul weather or thunderstorms,’.
E4.1 Deleted Rules in Part 4
Rules 40, 43, 44.3, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52 and 54 are deleted.
E4.2 Outside Help
Rule 41 is changed to:
A boat or the competitor controlling her shall not receive help from any outside source, except
(a) when the competitor is ill, injured or in danger;
(b) when her hull, rig or appendages are entangled with another boat, help from the other competitor;
(c) help in the form of information freely available to all competitors.
E4.3 Taking a Penalty
Rule 44.1 is changed to:
A boat may take a One-Turn Penalty when she may have broken one or more rules of Part 2, or rule 31, in an incident while racing.
(a) when she may have broken a rule of Part 2 and rule 31 in the same incident she need not take the penalty for breaking rule 31;
(b) if the boat gained a significant advantage in the heat or race by her breach despite taking a penalty, her penalty shall be an additional One-Turn Penalty;
(c) if the boat caused serious damage, or as a result of breaking a rule of Part 2 she caused another boat to become disabled and retire, her penalty shall be to retire.
E4.4 Person in Charge
Rule 46 is changed to: ‘The member or organization that entered the boat shall designate the competitor. See rule 75.’
E5.1 Observers
(a) The race committee may appoint observers, who may be competitors.
(b) Observers shall hail the sail numbers of boats that make contact with a mark or another boat and shall repeat the hail as appropriate.
(c) At the end of a heat, observers shall report to the race committee all unresolved incidents, and any failure to sail the course as required by rule 28.
E5.2 Umpired Races
The International Radio Sailing Association Addendum Q shall apply to umpired races. Races to be umpired may be identified in the sailing instructions or orally before the warning signal.
Note: The addendum is available at the website: radiosailing.org.
E5.3 Rules for Observers and Umpires
Observers and umpires shall be located in the control area. They shall not use any aid or device that gives them a visual advantage over competitors.
E6.1 Right to Protest
Rule 60.1 is changed to:
A boat may
(a) protest another boat, but not for an alleged breach of a rule of Part 2, 3 or 4 unless she was scheduled to sail in that heat; or
(b) request redress.
However, a boat or competitor may not protest for an alleged breach of rules E2 or E3.7.
E6.2 Protest for a Rule Broken by a Competitor
When a race committee or protest committee learns that a competitor may have broken a rule, it may protest the boat controlled by that competitor.
E6.3 Informing the Protestee
Rule 61.1(a) is changed to:
A boat intending to protest shall inform the other boat at the first reasonable opportunity. When her protest concerns an incident in the racing area that she was involved in or saw, she shall hail twice ‘(Her own sail number) protest (the sail number of the other boat)’.
E6.4 Informing the Race Committee
A boat intending to protest or request redress about an incident in the racing area or control area shall inform the race officer as soon as reasonably possible after finishing or retiring.
E6.5 Time Limits
A protest, request for redress or request for reopening shall be delivered to the race officer no later than ten minutes after the last boat in the heat finishes or after the relevant incident, whichever is later.
E6.6 Redress
Add to rule 62.1:
(e) external radio interference acknowledged by the race committee, or
(f) becoming disabled and as a result retiring because of the action of a boat that was breaking a rule of Part 2 or of a vessel not racing that was required to keep clear.
E6.7 Right to Be Present
In rule 63.3(a) ‘the representatives of boats shall have been on board’ is changed to ‘the representative of each boat shall be the competitor controlling her’.
E6.8 Taking Evidence and Finding Facts
Add to rule 63.6:
When the protest concerns an alleged breach of a rule of Part 2, 3 or 4, any witness shall have been in the control area at the time of the incident. If the witness is a competitor who was not acting as an observer, he shall also have been scheduled to race in the relevant heat.
E6.9 Decisions on Redress
Add to rule 64.2:
If a boat is given redress because she was damaged, her redress shall include reasonable time, but not more than 30 minutes, to make repairs before her next heat.
When a protest committee decides that a boat that is a party to a protest hearing has broken a rule other than a rule of Part 2, 3 or 4, it shall either
(a) disqualify her or add any number of points (including zero and fractions of points) to her score. The penalty shall be applied, if possible, to the heat or race in which the rule was broken;
otherwise it shall be applied to the next heat or race for that boat. When points are added, the scores of other boats shall not be changed; or
(b) require her to take one or more One-Turn Penalties that shall be taken as soon as possible after the starting signal of her next heat that is started and not subsequently recalled or abandoned.
However, if the boat has broken a rule in Appendix G or rule E8, the protest committee shall act in accordance with rule G4.
(a) The first paragraph of rule G1.1 is changed to:
Every boat of a class administered or recognized by the International Radio Sailing Association shall display a sail number on both sides of each sail. Class insignia and national letters shall be displayed on mainsails as stated in rules G1.1(a), G1.1(b), E8(d) and E8(e).
(b) Rule G1.1(c) is changed to:
(1) A sail number, which shall be the last two digits of the boat registration number or the competitor’s or owner’s personal number, allotted by the relevant issuing authority.
(2) When possible, there shall be space in front of a sail number for a numeric prefix.
(3) When the sail number is in the range ‘00’ to ‘09’, the initial ‘0’ shall be omitted and the remaining digit positioned to allow space for both a prefix and a suffix.
(4) ‘0’ shall not be used as a prefix.
(5) When there is a conflict between sail numbers or a sail number might be misread, the race committee may require that the sail numbers on one or more boats be changed to a numeric alternative.
(6) Any changed sail number shall become the sail number for the event.
(c) The sentence after rule G1.1(c) is deleted.
(d) Rule G1.2(b) is changed to:
The height of characters and distance between them on the same and opposite sides of the sail shall be as follows:
Class insignia:
Except where positioned back to back, shortest distance between insignia on opposite sides of sail: Minimum 20 mm (No Maximum)
Sail numbers:
Height of characters: Minimum 100 mm, Maximum 110 mm
Shortest distance between adjoining characters on same side of sail: Minimum 20 mm, Maximum 30 mm
Shortest distance between sail numbers on opposite sides of sail and between sail numbers and other identification: Minimum 60 mm, (No Maximum)

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